Heicheng Relic

Last updated by chinatravel at 2014/5/3

A brief intro to the tourist attraction

Heicheng, which is called Halahaote in Mongolia language, is located in the desert at the northern bank of the low reaches of the dry Ejina River (also called “the black water”). It is a part of Juyan culture. The word of Juyan is Chinese translation of Huns, which means “heaven”. Juyan area was originally the grazing land of Huns. After the 19 year-old general of Han Dynasty, Huoqubing, successfully defeated the Huns, Han Dynasty had ever stationed here to guide the boundary. Thus, a brilliant civilization of Han was created in Juyan area. After Han Dynasty, the civilization here has always broken and ridden a roller coaster, and the trauma brought by war saturated the River of Ruoshui. When the time came to year 1038, the Xixia country founded by Dangxiang minority set up “Weifu Military Administration” here, which is another climax of Juyan culture and the reason for the place to be an important clue of research on Xixia culture. In 1226, Mongolia military led by Chengjisihan conquered Heicheng in the fourth southern campaign. In 1286, Yuanshizu here set up “Yijinailu Government of General Administration”, making the area become the transportation hinge from the Central Plains to Northern Desert. Marco polo had entered into the Oriental Heaven along this ancient road.

Heicheng area is the important agricultural and animal husbandry base and frontier fort in the western area of Xixia. It is also the key passage and stop from Hexi Corridor to Lingbei provinces in Yuan Dynasty. In the meal while, it is a large oasis among desert in Black Water river basin of Xixia and Yuan Dynasty. In 1372, after the Western Expedition General Fengsheng of Ming Dynasty defeated Heicheng, the government immediately gave up this area. From then on, Heicheng had slept for about 700 years in dust-laden history. In 1886, the Russian scholar Botaning discovered Heicheng when he was taking an expedition in Ejina. In April, 1908, the Russian explorer Keziluofu dug out here plenty of cultural relics of Xixia, including the precious ancient books such as “the Pearl in the hand between Pan and Han”, “Yintong” and “Sea of Literature” with both characters of Han majority and Xia. The significant archaeological discovery and plundering action had overwhelmed archaeological and historical world. The plane of Heicheng takes on a rectangular shape with the perimeter of about one kilometer. The length from east to west is 434meters and that from north to south is 384meters. The city gate is opened in the middle of two walls and an enclosure for defense is added outside it. The city walls were rammed by yellow earth with a remaining height of 9 meters. A Lama tower with the shape like a covered earthen bowl was built at the northwestern corner of the city. The original streets and major buildings are vaguely eligible, and the surrounding ancient river way as well as the remaining appearance of the farming field still kept its profile. The desert will have already devoured here and how much treasure is still buried in Heicheng is a mystery remaining to be unraveled.

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