China is one of the civilizations with longest history in the word. Located in the eastern side of Tiananmen Square, National Museum of China has witnessed the development of China. It boasts large numbers of artworks and cultural heritages. It opened to public from Tuesday to Sunday except for official holidays.
National Museum of China, covering an area of 200,000 square meters, posses 48 exhibition halls and more than 1,200,000 connections. It is one of the largest museums in the world with abundant connections. National Museum of China pays equal attention to art and history. It is a comprehensive museum directed by the Ministry of Culture of People’s Republic of China which serves the purpose of collecting, exhibition, research, archeology, public education and cultural exchange.
History of the Museum:
The predecessor of the National Museum of China is the Preparatory Office of the National Museum of History. It was founded in July 1912 and originally located at the Imperial College (Guozijian) in Beijing. In 1918 the office was relocated to the Wumen of the Forbidden City. The museum was first open to the public in 1924 and changed its name several times after that. In 1950 the Preparatory Office of the National Museum of Revolution was founded and moved its site from Beihai Park to Wuyingdian of the Palace Museum. After that the museums changed their names several times and were under constant constructions. The museum was finally established in 2003 by combining the two separate museums. National Museum of China began its renovation and enlargement project in 2007 and completed in 2010.
Exhibition of Ancient China:
Ancient China is one of the basic exhibitions in the National museum of China. Exhibition Hall of Ancient China is at the 1st basement floor (－1 level). The Ancient Chinese Display boasts about 2026 art and cultural heritages, among them 521 are first-class cultural relics. The artworks are classified according to different Dynasties. The exhibits include periods of Ancient Times; Dynasties of Xia, Shang and Zhou; Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period; Dynasties of Qin and Han; Period of Three Kingdom and Dynasties of Eastern Jin, Western Jin and Northern and Southern Dynasties; Sui Tang and the Five Dynasties; Dynasties of Liao, Song, Xia, Jin and Yuan; Min and Qing Dynasties.
Exhibits of Ancient Times:
In the exhibit of ancient times, you can see the cultural relics and replicas used by people who lived in the Paleolithic times. Relics like stone tools, prey debris, traces in making fire, bone needles and decorations like shells and teeth described a vivid picture of lives in those times. Matriarchy village models showed the development of the Neolithic Age. Handicraft industry, written words, culture and religions came into being with the development of the farming technology.
Exhibits for Dynasties of Xia, Shang and Zhou
It is the preliminary stages of development and formation of state ideology. Bronze casting reaches its peak at this time, and it is the famous “Bronze Age” in Chinese history. Writing words on oracles and bronzes is the way to record things at the time. Bronze inscriptions and inscriptions on oracle bones can be seen here.
Exhibits for Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period:
It is one of the turbulent periods of Chinese history, with wars happened frequently. However, it is also a time when culture and art flourished. There are many famous relics related to famous historical figures in this period can be seen here.
Exhibits for Dynasties of Qin and Han
In 221 B. C., the first united, multi-ethnic and centralized state--the QinDynasty--was founded in China. Langya Carved Stones and Yangling Bronze Tiger-shaped tally for troop movement are the typical relics of Qin Dynasty. Green Glaze Pottery Building, Wuzhuqianwen Bronze Drum and Fufeng paper showed the prosperity of Han Dynasty.
Exhibits from Three Kingdom Period to Northern and Southern Dynasties
These periods witnessed the unrest and turmoil of the society. Regimes change frequently. Some artworks expressed the ethnic fusion while some showed the unstable society. Porcelains like black and green porcelains achieved great development in these periods.
Exhibits for Dynasties from Sui to Qing
Dynasties of Sui and Tang are the most prosperous periods in China, especially in its early times. Tang tri-colored glazed pottery is the masterpiece of this time. Yao porcelain had a great development in the Yuan Dynasty. Southern Inspection Tour of Qianlong is one of the most famous relics of Qing Dynasty.
The Road of Rejuvenation
The Road of Rejuvenation is another permanent exhibition in the National Museum of China which is displayed on the 2ed and 3rd floor. Road of Rejuvenation Exhibition is developed from the National Museum of Revolution. It recorded the history of Modern China from The Opium War in 1840 to the foundation of People’s Republic of China in 1949. There are more than 2300 relics which include documents, pictures, models, paintings, sculptures, etc.