Double Loyalty Temple

Last updated by chinatravel at 2014/11/4

Mianzhu Temple of Zhuge Zhan and his son (Double Loyalty Temple) is one of important history relics of Shu (one of the Three Kingdoms) in Sichuan Province. It was built in memory of three generations of the Zhuge family for their loyalty to the State of Shu. Their deeds are widely read by people over generations owing to Zhuge Liang's great talent and bold vision, especially his merits and achievements in assisting Liu Bei in governing the State of Shu.

According to historical records, Zhuge Zhan was the eldest son of Zhuge Ling. He was born when Zhuge Ling was 47 years old. From his youth, Zhan had been perspective and intelligent. He was skilled at calligraphy and painting, and also had a fine memory. In the 12th year of Jianxing [234], Zhuge Liang campaigned from Wugong and wrote to his elder brother Zhuge Jin: "Zhuge Zhan is already eight and is clever and adorable. I dislike that he has matured early and fear that he may not grow up to be a great mind." At the age of 19, Zhuge Zhan married a daughter of Liu Chan (the second Emperor of Shu) and was assigned as Chief Commandant of Cavalry.

The next year he became General of the Gentlemen of the Household of Yulin. Since then, he was consecutively promoted to Colonel of Shesheng, Palace Attendant, and Supervisor of the Masters of Writing with conferment of Army Advisor General. Zhuge Zhan succeeded his father's loyalty and dedicated all his life and energy to the Kingdom of Shu. In the 4th year of Jingyao [261], Zhuge Zhan was made acting Protector of the Army, General of the Guards. He undertook the position of Referee of the Affairs of the Masters of Writing with Dong Jue, the General-in-chief who supported the Nation and Marquis of Nanxiang. In the winter of the 6th year [263], the General who campaigned in the West of Wei, Deng Ai, came on expedition against Shu and penetrated through a gorge path near Yinping.

Zhuge Zhan oversaw the armies to garrison Fu. The vanguard was defeated and the army retreated to garrison Mianzhu. Deng Ai wrote a letter to incite Zhuge Zhan: "If you surrender, you will certainly be made King of Langya." Zhuge Zhan was furious and killed Deng Ai's emissary. Then he battled, was seriously defeated and died on the battlefield at the age of thirty-seven. After seeing his father fall, 19- year-old Zhuge Shang, Zhuge Zhan's eldest son, also plunged into the fighting, but suffered the same fate as his father. Deng Ai was so moved by their loyalty that he had the father and son buried together. Later someone left these lines in praise of Zhan and Shang:

Mianzhu County is the place where Zhuge Zhan and Zhuge Shang killed the emissary, refused to surrender and gave up their lives for their country of Shu. So Mianzhu enjoys the reputation as being the place of loyal court officials and filial sons. The ancient constructions of Double Loyalty Temple include the Worshipping Hall and the Enlightening Hall. The Enlightening Hall was built in the 3rd year of Qianlong (one emperor in Qing Dynasty) and the Worshipping Hall, the 7th year of Daoguang (another emperor in Qing Dynasty after Qianlong).

Double Loyalty Temple had to be maintained and expanded every 20 years since the periods of Qianlong. After years of expanding, it turned into a magnificent temple with a myriad of beautiful inscriptions. In 1985, the local government undertook its reconstruction. The local government repaired the Gate of Loyalty and Filial Piety, maintained the Worshipping Hall and rebuilt the tomb. Meanwhile, people newly built a cultural relic exhibition room and kept a big color sculpture Soul of garrison Mianzhu in the Worshipping Hall.

From the vivid sculpture the visitors can see the heroic deeds of Zhuge Zhan and his son. Before the Worshipping Hall there are the big characters of "Martyrs of Han Dynasty" written by the general Zhang Aiping and inscribed on a horizontal board. On the board above the sculpture, there are these characters "Soul of Mianzhu Pass" written by a famous dramatist Cao Yu.

The Tomb of Zhuge Zhan and his son erects highly behind the Worshipping Hall, surrounded with many green trees and grasses. There is a large stone tablet standing before the tomb with the words on it: "The tomb of Zhuge Zhan, a general of Han Dynasty". On each side of the tomb there stands a hundred-year-old pine, with the skin like a coat of mail and leaves like sharp swords. The two trees are just like warriors in armored coat protecting the tomb, with swords in their hands. The visitors may feel deep reverence when they come to the tomb. Then how about Deng Ai after defeating Shu and making great achievements? He and his son died of slanders and were buried in Mianzhu. Their tombs are located in Dashabao in Xinlong County, 5 kilos away to Mianzhu city.

 

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