The Peoples’ Republic of China was established on October 1, 1949. It was preceded by the last Chinese dynasty, the Qing Dynasty, and the Republic of China under Sun Yat-sen and later Chiang Kai Shek. Mao Zedong’s led the communist party that ruled the country. He implemented extensive land reforms with emphasis on equal distribution of land for the peasants and the eventual persecution of some of the rich and powerful landlords.
Mao Zedong: 1949-1976
Deng Xiaoping: 1976-1989
Under Deng’s leadership the communist ideology was re-examined and a thrust for an economically-sound China became a primary concern as economic reforms were formulated and implemented. The People’s Republic of China opened its doors (once again) to Western Technology.
The People’s Republic of China’s administrative units legally provides for the provinces, counties and townships. Due to the sheer size of China, two more levels were added- the prefecture under the provinces and village under township. To date there are 33 provincial level regions, 333 prefecture level regions, 2,862 county-level regions, 41, 636 township level regions and a great number of village-level regions. Under the Central Government, the divisions are the provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. In theory, the provinces are supposed to be under the PRC central government but in practice the provincial officials largely control the provinces’ economy.
The People’s Republic of China has a land area of 9.6 million square miles. On its east side are the Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, South China Sea and East China Sea. On its three sides are land masses stretching from Vietnam to North Korea.
The territorial limits or boundaries of most of the provinces in China except the NE provinces were established during the reign of imperial dynasties as the Yuan, Ming and Qing. Other provincial boundaries were set and established based on geographical or cultural parameters.
The Communist Party of China (CPC) is the only political party in power in China. It was founded in 1921 and through more than 25 years of struggle in China was able to establish the People’s Republic of China.
For a country with more than 250 million of its citizens living in extreme poverty in the 1970s, China has indeed done well. This staggering figure has come down to 15 million since China’s path to recovery in 1978. In connection China has reached most of the goals stipulated in the Millennium Development Goals. Over the last decade, China has made extraordinary progress on its education status, life expectancy, eradicating extreme hunger and poverty, development of global partnership for growth and more. It is reported that China is more than 12 years ahead of its schedule in providing primary education.
Everything seems to be made in China. The country is a leading manufacturing haven - from mobile phones to fashion accessories to construction materials. A multi-billion USD healthcare system is well under way to provide a 3-year universal coverage. China is also set to have one-fifth of its energy come from renewable sources. China is well on its way of becoming a super power.
Ancient China had contributed important inventions and innovations to the world. Gunpowder and tea are of Chinese origin. The Chinese also invented the compass and paper. Printing and Immunology are Chinese inventions so is the development of steel and iron. On the other side of the spectrum, martial arts and noodles originated in China.
Today, China’s contribution pertains more on economy. China is fast gaining the distinction of being a super power. Economists speculate that by 2027, Chinese economy would have exceeded U.S. economy. China is the biggest exporter of all kinds of products, from communication gadgets to bathroom tiles. The biggest importer of China made goods such as generators, electronics, clothing, fashion accessories, games and toys is the U.S.
In the last two decades, China has been presenting the world with excellent athletes and artists in various disciplines. Indeed, the People’s Republic of China has come a long way.