Yongling Mausoleum of Qing Dynasty
Yongling Mausoleum is the earliest, ever unearthed mausoleum of Qing dynasty. It was constructed in 1598, the 26th year of Wanli Emperor of Ming dynasty, originally called Xingjing Mausoleum and then renamed as Yongling. The location of Yongling Mausoleum is one kilometers away from the Northwest Yongling Town of Xinbin Manchu Autonomous County. It covers 10,000 square meters with Suzi River in the front and Qiyun Mountain at its back. Here buries empires of six generations of Nu’erhachi Family, namely, Mengtemu, Fuman, Juechang’an, Lidun and Tachapiangu.
The mausoleum is composed of the Front Courtyards, the Square Castle, and the Royal Castle. It is circled with walls and thus similar to Fuling and Zhaoling in Shenyang Province in terms of style. At the center of the South Front Courtyard stands the red gate; the construction style of the Front Courtyard is Yingshan. The red gate is as wide as three rooms and covered with yellow colored glaze tile. The ridge is carved with images of beasts and the girder painted with colored draw or pattern. There are four Gongde (means contribution and virtue) Pavilions of former emperors, namely, the Zhaozuyuan Emperor, Xingzuzhi Emperor, Jingzuyi Emperor, and Xianzutong Emperor. Beside the gate were Chashan (means tea and food) Room, Diqi (means washing wares) Room, Qiban Room, and Zhuban Room, etc. the Square city lies in the northern part of Gongde Pavilions and its south gate is called Qiyun Gate which is of Xieshan Style. Qiyun Gate is constructed with yellow colored gazes and two cylinder walls carved with colorful dragon drawings at both sides of it. Walking across Zhengqi Gate one will find the Qinyun Hall on a square platform. There are Nuange (means warm cabinet), royal bed, royal seats, Buddha Shrine and sacrifice.
There are supporting halls in the east and west of Zhengqi Gate. In front of the West Supporting Hall lays the Jinbe Pavilion and at the back of Qinyun Hall stands the Royal Castle. The cemetery can be divided into the upper and the lower layer as well as the left and right ranks. On the upper layer buries the Lidun and Tacha Emperor respectively in the left and right; on the second layer tourists can find the graves of Fuman Emperor in the middle, those of Juecha’an and Takeshi Emperor at both sides, and that of Mengtemu in the northeast side. There are Immortal Tree and colored glazes circling the tree in front of the Royal Castle. Considering the scale of construction, Yongling Mausoleum is the smallest one among three mausoleums unearthed in early Qing dynasty. But it is the earliest one and has been thoroughly remedied. Now it is brand-new, presenting a more glorious and grand scene with the decoration of green trees and red walls.
Yongling Mausoleum tops the three most famous Mausoleums in early Qing dynasty and the other two refer to Fuling Mausoleum and Zhaoling Mausoleum in Shenyang. It is the most completely retained and the largest mausoleum of ancient Emperors ever unearthed by now. It boasts of excellent Chinese tradition and the artistic style of Manchu Nationality. Moreover, it is the precious cultural heritage of China.