Hubei belonged to the powerful state of Chu during the Spring and Autumn Period. At that time, most part of the territories was covered by marsh.
Qin Dynasty was founded, and Hubei became the important passage to the south. The population increased and the swampland turned to the farmland by draining. Han Dynasty set Jiangxia Jun and Nan Jun here. Shu and Wu kept fighting for the land in the time of Three Kingdoms. Jin Dynasty set Jing Zhou, and Tang Dynasty set E Zhou. Song Dynasty set Hubeilu and Jingxilu. Because of the invasion of Jin in the north and the endless war, lots of people immigrated to Hubei. The immigrants brought the advanced culture and agricultural technology so Hubei became the important crops base. Hubei started to flourish. Yuan Dynasty set Huguang Executive Secretariat，and Wuhan became the terminal market for two lakes’ basin. Huguang Provincial Treasurer was founded in Ming Dynasty, and when it came to the last period of Ming Dynasy, Hankou was one of four most famous cities at that time. Qing Dynasty saw Hubei province. After Opium War in 1840, foreign capitals started to set their foot on the upflow of Yangze, and Hankou and Yichang were opened as commercial ports successively. With the rise of Westernization Movement, Zhang Zhidong, the Governor of Huguang, found a lot of western firms, which developed quickly the economy of Hubei province. The 1911 Revolution shot the first bullet in Hubei, and it is called the Wuchang Uprising. The first republic in Asia came into existence later.
Since the People's Republic of China was founded, Hubei has developed greatly. It was the center of the middle south China before the 1960s.