Xingcheng old city
Xingcheng old city was built in the third year of Xuande’s reign in the Ming Dynasty (AD1428). It was destroyed in the second year of Longqi’s reign (AD 1568) by earthquake. In the third year of Tianqi’s reign (AD 1623), it was rebuilt by Yuan Chonghuan, an official of the Ming Dynasty.
Xingcheng old city was built with the shape of square. Its circumvallation is 3274 meters in length and 8.88 meters in height. Its width of the bottom is 6.5 meters, while that of the top is 5 meters. There are crenellations or battlements along the outer crest of the city wall and parapets on the top of the city wall. The base of the city wall was built with the darkblue stone slabs, while big black bricks were put outside. Inside of the wall, it was built with the huge stones, and earth was tempered together. There is a city gate in the middle of the four-side walls respectively. Chunhe gate was in the east, Yanhui gate in the south, Yongning gate in the west and Weiyuan gate in the north. There is an arrow tower stand highly on each gate of the city walls. Besides, there are passages with steps along the city. Emplacements were set on the four corners, used to put Hong Yi Cannons. At the war of Qingyuan between the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Nu’erhachi, the first emperor of the Qing Dynasty was shot by the Hong Yi Cannon and died soon after he came back to the capital.