Shangluo, consisting of seven counties (Shangzhou, Luonan, Danfeng, Shangnan, Shanyang, Zhenan, Zhashui) is an old city with a population of 2,400,000 people. It covers an area of 1.93 square kilometers which is rich in beautiful mountains and unique interests. Shangluo, the manor of Shangyang, the reformer of the Qin in Warring States period (475BC-221BC), was the threshold of capital Chang’an (ancient capital of China in many dynasties, including the Han, Sui and Tang Dynasties located in today’s Xi’an City), and was the thoroughfare from northwest to southeast.
Shangluo was the place of military importance. In ancient China, many armed uprising peasant forces once fought in Shangluo, such as those led by Liubang [259-195BC, the first emperor of Han Dynasty (206BC-220AD), Huangchao [the peasant rebellion at the end of Tang Dynasty (618-907)], Li Zicheng [who led the peasant rebellion at the end of Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)]. In revolutionary war periods (1930s and the 1940s), Shangluo was once the center region of Henan, Shaanxi and Hubei revolutionary base areas (led and established by the Chinese Communist Party, CCP for short). The leaders of CCP, such as Li Xiannian (1909-1992), Xu Xiangqian (1901-90), He Long (1896-1969), Cheng Zihua (1905-91), and other leading comrades once fought a bloody battle here successively. There are more than 1,000 cultural relics and ancient sites such as Luonan Pithecanthropus Site, San Qin Wuguan Fort, Sihao Tomb (beginning of Han Dynasty), Danfeng Boat (underworld gang), and Li Zicheng Stockade Village. There are also 1,000 more ancient buildings. Zhashui water limestone cave is praised as "northland marvelous spectacle ". The Danjiang River drift is highly praised by visitors at home and abroad. Within the Zhashui territory, Niubeiliang National Nature Preserve is the famous scenic spot and health and summer resort. Beside, there are also other key interests such as Double Tower, Shuxi Building, Fengyang Pagoda, Shiwongzi Limestone Cave Groups, Huamiao Temple and Yungai Temple.