The Trench of the Jin Dynasty
Located in Huolin River Mining Area in Tongliao City , the Great Wall of Jin Dynasty, which is commonly referred to as “Genghis Khan Abutment Wall”, runs along the valley of Huolin River and winds itself through the mountains of northeast China . Then it cuts through the mining area, runs toward the southwest and stretches into the district of Ximeng.
A causeway has been built by earth in the trench, on which a platform (which looks like the face of a horse) is built. There is a position of defense in the inner side of the trench every certain distance and there is always a pass at the important crossings of roads. Therefore, these are all called “Earthworks of the trench”. In 1125 A.D., Nuzhen Nationality conquered Liao Dynasty and was defeated by Song Dynasty. Therefore, the tripartition of Southern Song Dynasty, Western Hsia Dynasty as well as Jin Dynasty came into being, the last one of which set its regime in Shangjin (the current Baichengzi of Acheng County, Heilongjiang Province).
Not long after the establishment of Jin regime, the northern nomad, led by Mongolian ethnic, began to annoy and attack it. In order to stabilize its reign and defend the attack of other ethnics, Jin Dynasty began to build the trench since the first year of Tianjuan Era (1138), which lasted to the third year of Cheng’an Era. The trench of Jin Dynasty is mainly located in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region with a few parts distributed in Mongolia and Russia .
Most of the trench runs from northeast to southwest, covering 2500 kilometers in width with a total length of more than 1000 kilometers. There are two strongholds in the mining area, with well-preserved walls and trenches with clear-cut frameworks. The wall is made up of yellow earth, which is still more than 3 meters high after thousands years of corroding by wind and rains. The city gate is in the middle of the eastern wall, with a width of about 4 meters.
In the center of the southern, western and northern wall, there is a platform which looks like the face of a horse each. Four turrets stand on the four corners of the city. The sites of architectures are distributed here and there, with high platforms, wells and crisscross roads. A lot of relics have been found in the two castles, most of which are plain argillaceous grey pottery (such as pottery basin, pottery jar and pottery pot), rough ceramic whiteware (such as bowl, plate, basin, jar and bottle) as well as black glaze jar with small mouth and green glaze jar, which looks like chicken leg. Besides all these, there are also iron pans, iron plows and iron knives; the stone tools mainly include millstones, hammer ram and lapping tools; the constructing materials are square bricks, pantiles, and hinges. In addition, chessboard made by square bricks and fine chessman made by stones have also been found. The trench and the side earthworks of Huolin River Mining Area fall to the government of Linhuang Fu. They must have been built before the 21st year of Dading Era (1181).