Qiao Mausoleum is the tomb of Emperor Ruizong (Li Dan, Reign year:684), the fifth emperor of Tang Dynasty. The mausoleum is located at the 751-meter-high Fengshan Mountain with fluctuating ridges and peaks stretching south into the vast plain and facing Qinling Mountains from a far distance. Fengshan Mountain is also called the Phoenix Mountain because it is in the shape of a phoenix.
Emperor Ruizong had been the king of Tang Dynasty for only one year before he designated Li Longji, his third son, the crown prince and abdicated the throne to him soon to avoid a palace revolution for the throne. That laid a good foundation for the Flourishing Age of Kaiyuan (713-741). Ruizong died in June in 716 and was buried in Qiao Mausoleum at the end of year.
Built in the flourishing age of Kaiyuan, Qiao Mausoleum has large-scale constructions. As far as the cemetery is concerned, the mausoleum covers the whole Fenghsan Mountain. High walls were built around the mausoleum. The south wall is 2,871 meters long, the west wall is 2,836 meters long, and the north wall is composed of two parts, the first part of which is 2,433 meters long, and the second part is a deep ditch that stretches 450 meters to the turret at the northwestern corner. The 2,303-meter-long east wall runs south for 903 meters and winds west for 427 meters along the mountain features and then turns south to the East Gate and the ruins at the southeastern corner. The whole mausoleum from the surface is in the shape of a sword hilt and has an area of 850,000 sq meters. The bright red wall is 1.3 meters thick, and the base part is 3 meters thick. The chambers of the mausoleum were dug on the mountainside. Four gates were built along the wall of the mausoleum: the gates of Southern God (Zhu Que), Northern God (Xuan Wu), Eastern God (Qing Long, or the Black Dragon) and Western God (Bai Hu, or White Tiger). Stone carvings and watch towers stand on both sides of each gate. There are also watch towers at the joint parts of the walls.