Oingliang Mountain has been the No.1 well-known scenic spot of Yan’an all through the ages and there are numerous poems and songs written by eminent persons praising it. The landscape of Qingliang Mountain could be classified into three kinds: The first one is the Buddhist historical cultural relics with Wanfo (Ten-thousand Buddha) Cave as its representative; the second is revolutionary relics and sites of the CPPC’S news and publishing units when it was in Yan’an; The last one is Taihe Mountain (another name of Qingliang Mountain) Daoist Temple. Wanfo (Ten-thousand Buddha) Cave was cut before the Sui Dynasty, statues of Buddha were shaped and maintained during the Tang, Song, Jing, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties. Wanfo (Ten-thousand Buddha) Cave consists of four grand grottoes which were built according to mountain features. There are ten thousand stone Buddha of various poses and facial expressions are engraved on the columns inside the cave and walls, whose superlative craftsmanship excel the nature. The Cave is the precious historic and cultural relic which is eulogized and protected by celebrities and men of insight of different times. On the same cliff, besides Wanfo Cave, there are famous scenic spots like Shiwan (Poetry Bay), Wanranyunxia (Looking like Rosy Clouds), Shuizhao Yan'an (Water Mirroring Yan'an), Yue'erjing (Moon Well), Yinyueting (Moon-reflecting Pavilion), Fangongci (Memorial Hall of Fanzhongyan), Paggongci (Memorial Hall of revered Mr. Pang), Yanshou Palace, the Immortal's Cave, Steel Forest and Dingjia Spring etc. Qingliang Mountain is also the birthplace of new China’s newscast and publication cause. Once when Party Central Committee and Maozedong were in Yan’an, here was the place where Xinhua News Agency, Yan’an Xinhua Broadcasting Station, Liberation Daily Agency, Masses in Border Region Agency, Central Publication and Distribution Bureau, Central Printing Factory and Xinhua Bookstore located. Now a “Qingliang Mountain Information and Publication Memorial Hall.” is built on the mountain, in front of which stand three white marble figures symbolizing news, broadcast and publication. Besides them is a steel inscribed dedication of Mao Zedong: “Go among the masses, not encourage empty talks”. The name of the museum was written by Ludingyi and it is the only professional museum of press and publication.
Qingliang Mountain also called Taihe Mountain, on the top of which is a Taihe Temple. It is composed of architectures like Zhenwu Master hall, Zhuangyuan bridge, Caishen (God Wealth) temple, Niangniang (Goddess) temple, Yaowang (herb king) temple, Shengmu (saint mother) temple and Santianmeng (three-heavenly gate). It’s a religious place in north Shaanxi secondary in importance to Baiyun (white cloud) Mountain. April the 8th in lunar calendar is the temple meeting when the culture and business activities are quite prosperous. Qingliang Mountain is one of the most important scenic spot in Yan’an’s tourism industry, which attracts tourists to come in swarms, who will all be intoxicated by the important and special historic and revolutionary relics and the beautiful scenery.
2 Scenic spots
Wanfo (ten-thousand Buddha) Cave: It’s situated at the foot of Qingliang Mountain, which is one of the four big grottoes in Yan’an. We cannot make textual research in the history as to when the cave was built, however, we may learn from the remaining note of the statues that they were carved in the first year of Yuanfeng of Song Shenzong in North Song dynasty (1078 AD), hence the stone Buddha had a history about a thousand years. Above the entrance of the cave inscribed words like “Jinxianshengjing” (golden fairyland). The main grotto is rectangle-shaped with a altar in the middle. On both sides of the altar there are two stone walls sticking up to the top of the grotto. About ten thousands Buddha, Heavenly Kings, men of great strength of different sizes and poses are carved on the walls of the altar and the grotto. There is a grotto on the right with sculptures of three Buddha, four disciples of them, sixteen arhats and Samantabhadra and Heavenly Kings on the back wall towards the door and the walls of right and left sides. In the grotto on the left, tourists may see a caisson ceiling of eight angles carved in relief on the top and a Maitreya in the grotto. There is another grotto on the right. Besides two sculptures of Heavenly Kings, there are Buddhist stories carved in relief on the walls. The carving skills of Wanfo Cave are concise and delicate. The stone Buddha are of different expressions and they look graceful and charming, which are of extreme art value and worth of studying.
Fangongci (Memorial Hall of Fanzhongyan): Located on the south side of Yinyueting (Moon-reflecting Pavilion), it has two “Wangyan pavilion” on the both sides. Inside the hall, there is a statue of Fanzhongyan in military uniform when he fought Western Xia regime in Yanzhou. On the both walls beside the statue inscribed famous words and beautiful lines of verses of Fanzhongyan. The horizontal inscribed board above the gate is inscribed six Chinese characters meaning “No.1 figure of the Song dynasty”. And the couplets are Fan’s famous lines of verse “be the first to be concerned with state affairs and the last to enjoy oneself”. Opposite the building, there is an ancient palace of Xieshan style with ten beasts on its roof which looks magnificent. On the horizontal inscribed board of the gate, there are four Chinese characters “Tianxiaqiguan” (wonder in the world). Besides, there are two couplets explaining the “wonder”, one is “Only after experiencing odd things did someone know the unfairness in the world”, the other is “make a general survey of the accomplishment and faults of the heroes of now and past of the two waters and a city, look at the three waters and two mountains in the far distance to perceive good and evil.”