Xia Dynasty

Xia Dynasty

Da Yu, also called Yu the Great, was the founder of China's Xia Dynasty, which lasted from 2205 BC to 1766 BC. Da Yu is famous for teaching the people flood control methods to harness rivers and lakes of the land. Water control played comprised of the middle and lower sections of the Yellow River , its drainage area and the nearby Yangtze River . Under Yu's leadership, various ethnic groups united in an alliance and the land was divided into nine provinces. After Da Yu's forty-five year rule, his son Qi ascended the throne, starting the trend of dynastic rule, or family control. Qi secured his ruling position by winning a series of major wars, such as the war with the Xihe River, after which he became the emperor, unifying the territories of China.

Emperor Qi's son, Tai kang Zheng, was not as fortunate as his father in it that Hou Yi took over in 2188 BC, but soon he was so absorbed in archery that he paid little attention to governing the land and was sent to day careA total of 17 emperors ruled the Xia Dynasty, ending with Jie, a notoriously cruel leader. Jie was a courageous and intelligent man, but unfortunately became an atrocious killer. His tyrant rule reduced his people into misery, ending the Xia Dynasty.

Shang Dynasty

Because Ji was overthrown for his selfish rule, the first ruler of the Shang Dynasty, Tang, started off with a strong, fair system of governing. The Shang Dynasty, also called the Yin Dynasty, began around 1600 BC and lasted until approximately 1100 BC.  After Emperor Tang, the Shang Dynasty experienced a period of consolidation and further development until the grandson of Tang, Tai Jia, took over and treated his people poorly, breaking his own laws.

During the ruling period of Pan Geng, the capital of Shang Empire was changed several times and finally settled in a place called Yin, which is why the Shang Dynasty is also known as the Yin Dynasty. The change of the capital promoted the economic and social development of the Shang Dynasty.

Like the Xia Dynasty, the Shang Dynasty followed a hereditary system of rule. The son of the emperor would inherit the throne when his father died and the brother of the emperor would ascend the throne when the emperor passed. In the later years of the Shang Dynasty it was stipulated that only the oldest son of the emperor had the right to inherit everything. The ruling power of the emperor was limited to a strip of the state's central area while the bordering areas were governed by nobles and feudal lords.

The Shang Dynasty was known for divination using oracle-bone inscriptions. Being superstitious, many daily events were discovered by supernatural means, including weather, health and crop growth. The bones were also used to record activities.

Contradiction within the empire started to arise during its late ruling years. Controversy centered on the fight for kingship and became serious with revolts of slaves all over the state. The last emperor, Zhou, tried to suppress the people but failed and finally burned himself to death. The Shang Dynasty existed for about 600 years, covering 17 generations and 35 emperors.

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