8 Most Powerful Chinese Dynasties
China is one of the countries that can boast of an ancient civilization, with almost 5,000 years of the continuous history of different dynasties. There were 24 dynasties in Chinese history, of which the most powerful include Tang, Han, Qin, etc.
1. Tang Dynasty
- Time: 618 - 907
- Founder: Li Yuan 李渊
- Capital: Chang'an (today's Xi'an)
Founded in 618 and ending in 907, the Tang Dynasty is considered one of the most prosperous and powerful dynasties in Chinese history. In this glorious period, the economy, politics, culture, and military force reached an unprecedented advanced level.
The Tang capital Chang'an (today's Xi'an) was then the most populous and prosperous city in the world. The city is not only the political, economic, and cultural center of the Tang Dynasty but also a world metropolis.
The prosperous economy of the Tang Dynasty and developed domestic transportation facilitated foreign trade. Foreign trade flourished during the Tang Dynasty, with frequent exchanges between China and Southeast Asian and European countries.
It was also the golden age for poetry and painting. The prosperous economy and the frequent exchanges between China and foreign countries not only provided a solid and rich material foundation but also provided an open and relaxed environment for the cultural development of the Tang Dynasty. Tang poetry is China's most precious cultural heritage. Tricolored glazed pottery and woodblock printing were famous all over the world.
2. Han Dynasty
- Time: 202 BC - 220 AD
- Founder: Liu Bang 刘邦
- Capital: Chang'an (today's Xi'an)
The Han Dynasty was a united imperial dynasty of China following the Qin Dynasty. It consisted of two dynasties: the Western Han (206 BC - 24 AD) and the Eastern Han (25 - 220). During the period there were 24 emperors on the throne.
The Han Dynasty was the first golden age in Chinese history. It was the most advanced civilization and powerful empire in the world at that time.
The well-known Silk Road began with the Han dynasty's expansion into Central Asia during the rule of emperor Wudi around 114 BC. Trades on the Silk Road with Western countries brought wealth to the rulers and merchants. The Han major exported silk, porcelain, and silverware, and imported horses and some plants.
The influence of the Han Dynasty on Chinese civilization was profound. Chinese majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han people", their language is known as "Han language".
3. Qin Dynasty
- Time: 221 - 207 BC
- Founder: Qin Shi Huang (Ying Zheng)
- Capital: Xianyang (in today's Xi'an)
The Qin Dynasty was the first unified imperial dynasty in Chinese history developed by the Qin State during the Warring States period.
The founder, Qin Shi Huang was the first emperor of China. He reunified China by conquering the other 6 warring states and then established the Qin Dynasty.
Although falling apart after only 15 years, the Qin Dynasty held an important role in Chinese history and it exerted great influence on the following dynasties. Many measurements in the Qin Dynasty had far-reaching influences on later generations, such as the Qin Shi Huang standardized the written character, weights and measures, and coins. But the most important is that Qin Shi Huang established the centralization of authority, which laid the foundation for 21 centuries of imperial rule.
4. Ming Dynasty
- Time: 1368 - 1644
- Founder: Zhu Yuanzhang
- Capital: Yingtian (today's Nanjing in Jiangsu Province), Shuntian (today's Beijing)
Founded by Zhu Yuanzhang, the Ming Dynasty was the last feudal dynasty ruled by the Han people.
During the 276-year reign of the Ming Dynasty, the population almost doubled as it witnessed unprecedented economic and cultural expansion. Ming Dynasty made China one of the most prosperous countries in the world at that time. It flourished with growth in foreign trade and literature.
Remarkable Ming achievements included the restoration of the Great Wall to its finest appearance, large-scale naval expeditions, and active maritime trade. The Forbidden City built in the Ming Dynasty is China's best-preserved imperial palace, which displays the essence of traditional Chinese architecture. The Yongle Encyclopedia (Yongle Dadian) compiled during the Yongle Reign called is regarded as the biggest and earliest encyclopedia in the world.
5. Song Dynasty
- Time: 960 - 1279
- Founder: Zhao Kuangyin 赵匡胤
- Capital: Bianjing (today's Kaifeng in Henan Province), Lin'an (today's Hangzhou in Zhejiang Province)
The Song Dynasty was a prosperous era of economy, culture, science, and education in Chinese history, which is why this period was considered another period of the "golden age" after the glorious Tang Dynasty.
The Song Dynasty was divided into two eras: the Northern Song Era (960 - 1127), which was based north of the Yangtze River and had its capital in Kaifeng, and the Southern Song Era (1127 - 1279), which was mainly based south of the Yangtze River and had its capital at Hangzhou.
The civilizations of the Song dynasties of China were among the most advanced civilizations in the world at the time, just like the Tang Dynasty. But unlike the Tang, it faced powerful rivals to the north, including Manchuria and Mongolia.
Generally, the Song Dynasty was prosperous in many respects. In agriculture, advanced engineering techniques were used to increase grain production. In science, the The Song Empire was technologically and scientifically advanced. The Movable Type Printing and gunpowdere were invented during this period.
Great advances were also made in art. Artistic achievements include painting, calligraphy, pottery, and jade work. As with Tang poetry, Song poetry is also held in high esteem by the Chinese.
6. Zhou Dynasty
- Time: 1046 - 256 BC
- Founder: Ji Fa 姬发
- Capital: Haojing (today's Xi'an)
The Zhou Dynasty was the third slave state following the Shang Dynasty in Chinese history.
The Zhou Dynasty was divided into three periods:
- The Western Zhou Dynasty (1045 - 771 BC)
- The Spring and Autumn Period (770 - 476), when the empire divided into several competing states
- The Warring States Period (475 - 221), when the empire was divided into seven states who battled viciously
The Zhou era was one of the heydays of Chinese civilization. The achievements during the Zhou Dynasty in economy, politics, and culture were splendid. The main contributions of the Zhou Dynasty to Chinese literature were the prose: the Confucian classics, the Daoist classics, poems, and songs.
7. Sui Dynasty
- Time: 581 - 618
- Founder: Yang Jian 杨坚
- Capital: Daxing (in today's Xi'an), Luoyang
The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived but significant imperial dynasty in China, with great conquests and achievements. Sui unified the Northern and Southern Dynasties, ending the long-term division after the Jin Dynasty (266 - 316), and laying the foundations for the much glorious Tang Dynasty.
In the economy, Sui adopted a series of policies to relieve the pressure on farmers' production, which provided the foundation for economic development.
In politics, Sui created the imperial examination system to select outstanding candidates for the state bureaucracy, which weakened the monopoly of the clan on central power.
The Grand Canal connecting Luoyang, Beijing, and Hangzhou constructed during this era played a major role in reunifying and communicating north and south China.
8. Qing Dynasty
- Time: 1644 - 1911
- Founder: Huang Taiji 皇太极
- Capital: Beijing
The Qing Dynasty was the last imperial dynasty in Chinese history. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644) and followed by the Republic of China era (1912 - 1949).
Qing was the most populous dynasty ever. It was once brilliant in the prosperity of the golden age. The flourishing period lasted about 135 years. During this time, it was strong militarily and economically. China's population surpassed 100 million for the first time in history and grew to 300 million.