Types of Terracotta Warriors and Horses

Written by Sally Guo Updated Apr. 28, 2022

At present, 3 burial pits of Terracotta Warriors and Horses have been discovered, include approximate 8,000 warriors, 130 chariots with 520 chariot horses, and 150 cavalry horses, and each Terracotta Warrior differ in its facial expression, dress, hairstyle, posture, weapon, and position, in accordance with rank or service level.

The terracotta figurines are classified into three types: infantry, cavalry, and charioteers; along with terracotta horses.

the Types of Terracotta Warriors

Infantry Warriors

Infantry warriors are the majority types of figurines and 7,000 had been excavated, which were mostly discovered in pit no 1.

The infantry warriors can be separated into two types: officer and soldier. Officers have three ranks: namely high-rank, middle-rank, and low-rank. soldiers include lightly armed soldiers, heavily armed soldiers, standing archers, and kneeling archers.

Infantry Warriors
Infantry Warriors

Cavalry Warriors

There are 116 cavalry warriors in pits 1 and 2, all standing in front of their horses. Cavalrymen are life-sized, at around 1.8 meters(5.9 feet) in height. Their dress is obviously different from infantry and chariot warriors.

They all wear round caps, neck scarves, tight-sleeved robes, long pants, short boots, short and light body armor, which is the ordinary dress of the northern nomadic people of the Qin dynasty (221 - 207 BC). One hand holds the horse reins while the other holds a bow.

Cavalry Warriors
Cavalry Warrior


There are two types of charioteers: chariot drivers and chariot warriors. Chariot drivers wear robes with armor, helmets, and leg guards. They also use special armor as extra protection for outstretched arms and hands when controlling the horse’s reigns. Their arms were positioned to drive the chariots.

Chariot warriors are equipped with different weapons and stand near the chariots, serving to protect the chariots.

Bronze Charioteers

Pit 1, Pit 2, and Pit 3 Have Been Excavated - What Was Found?

After discovering pit 1, archaeologists began to research and protect the site, as well as finding other relics. In 1976, pit 2 was excavated with 1,000 warriors in the chariot cavalry corps and unveiled to the public in 1994. Pit 3 was found in 1976 and opened to visitors in 1987. In December 1987, the site was listed as a world cultural site.

Standing archers are found in pit 2 and they are all in light armor, with open shoes and leather belts, which make them move freely in battle. Kneeling archers are also in pit 2 and they all kneel on their right leg and bend the other as if showing respect or ready to fight.

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Size and Appearance of Different Types of Terracotta Warriors

General Warriors

Height: 1.96m (6.3ft); Weight: 240kg
Played the role of commander. Wearing a double curled tail crown, square mouth shoes, and colored fish robe.

Official Warriors

Height: 1.96m (6.3ft); Weight: 166kg
Wearing a long crown, a long robe with a girdle around the waist.

Chariot Warriors

Height: 1.9m (6.2ft); Weight: 170kg
Wearing armor. The chariots on the pit were escorted by three warriors. One in front is responsible for driving, and the left and right warriors are for fighting with the enemy.

Warriors in War Robes

Height: 1.9m (6.2ft); Weight: 240kg
Wearing short robes, armed with bows and arrows, without helmet and armor indicate the army is good at fighting.

Kneeling Archer

Height: 1.86m (6.1ft); Weight: 240kg
Wearing a knee-length armor, the hair tied up in a bun and with a short mustache, posturing carries a crossbow.

Standing Archers

Height: 1.86m (6.1ft); Weight: unknown
An infantry Figurine without armor, two kinds of postures: standing and kneeling.

Fully Armored Warrior

Height: 183m (6ft); Weight: 190kg
Standing and wearing armor, tied pants in knees, 6 patches of hair tied up in a bun.

Types of Terracotta Horses

Two categories of Terracotta Horses were excavated: chariot horses and cavalry horses. These are life-sized with vivid appearance. They were 1.7 meters (5.6 feet) in height and 2 meters (6.7 feet) in length.

The cavalry horses have not been castrated, and the chariot horses are castrated.

Types of Chariots

The three pits of the terracotta army totally contain 130 chariots.

According to the rank of the army, archaeologists divide them into four categories: chariots for ordinary soldiers, command chariots for senior officials, assistant chariots for two soldiers, and common chariots for four soldiers.

Terracotta Army Tour with Beijing and Shanghai

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