Chinese New Year History
Chinese New Year, also known as the Lunar New Year or Spring Festival, is the most important traditional festival. Falling on the first day of the lunar calendar, Chinese New Year has a history of over 4000 years.
The names and customs of Chinese New Year have been changed a lot with the development of history. Now, let's travel through time and get to know the long history of this ceremonious traditional festival.
In Ancient Times (Before 2000 BC): Chinese New Year Origin
Chinese New Year can be traced back to 4000 years ago. Since there was no written record in Ancient Times (before 2000 BC), the exact beginning year is still uncertain. Some people believe that the Chinese New Year is originated in Yushun Time (虞舜时代 yú shùn shí daì).
In Ancient Times, people believed astrology, they also thought ancestors and gods could control the fortune of people. So ancient people would go hunting and kill animals in winter, offer sacrifices to ancestors and gods at the beginning of the lunar year.
In the Zhou Dynasty (11th century BC - 256 BC): Chinese Calendar Established
In Ancient Times, people didn't have the concept of "year". They usually celebrated "New Year" at the beginning of spring. In the Zhou Dynasty, the 11th lunar month was considered as the beginning of the year (called 岁首 suì shǒu or 正月 zhēng yuè in Chinese) according to the Chinese sexagenary cycle.
Though the main custom was still offering sacrifices to ancestors and gods, some people started to worship nature and bless harvests at the turn of the year.
From this time, the festival began to have names, such as 元日 (yuán rì), 改岁 (gǎi suì), or 献岁 (xiàn suì).
In the Han Dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD): Chinese New Year Date Was Fixed
In ancient times, the date of the Chinese New Year celebration varied from mid-winter to early spring. The date was fixed on the first of the first lunar month in the Han Dynasty. Besides offering sacrifices to ancestors and gods, some other celebrating activities appeared, such as burning bamboo and drinking Tusu wine (屠苏酒 tú sū jiǔ).
In this time, Chinese New Year has different names as 正日 (zhèng rì), 正旦 (zhèng dàn), 岁旦 (suì dàn).
Spring Festival Couplets
In the Tang Dynasty (618 – 907 AD): Became An Prevalent Festival
Before the Tang Dynasty, Chinese New Year is only celebrated by the upper-class such as the royal family and rich people. With the development of the social economy, the celebrations of the Chinese New Year became popular among ordinary people. The function of the Chinese New Year is not only worshiping but also entertaining. More and more activities appeared, such as putting Spring Festival couplets and staying up late on New Year's Eve.
In this time, Chinese New Year has different names as 岁日 (suì rì), 新正 (xīn zhèng), 新元 (xīn yuán).
From the Song Dynasty (960 – 1279 AD) to the Qing Dynasty (1636 - 1912)
From the Song Dynasty, more celebrating activities appeared, such as setting off firecrackers, guessing lantern riddles, visiting relatives. People got a 7-day holiday during the festival. The customs were similar to those in modern times.
Chinese New Year was an important festival in the Qing Dynasty. The royal family would hold huge celebrations and grand banquets. It was very extravagant.
In this time, Chinese New Year has different names as 元旦 (yuán dàn), 元日 (yuán rì).
In Modern Times (After 1912): New Trends of New Year Celebration Appeared
During the Beiyang government period (1912-1928), President Yuan Shikai decreed that the Chinese New Year would fall on the first day of the lunar month, and named it 春节chūn jié (Spring Festival) in Chinese. 元旦 (yuán dàn) would fall on January 1 of the Gregorian calendar, it is considered as the official start of the new year.
Nowadays, Chinese people will have a 7-day holiday from Chinese New Year's Eve (除夕 chú xí) to the sixth day of Chinese New Year. In 2021, the Chinese New Year holiday is from February 11th to February 17th.
Besides traditional customs, some new celebrations appear. Watching CCTV (China Central Television) Spring Festival Gala on Chinese New Year's Eve, giving digital red envelopes via Wechat, and going on a short trip become new trends of the New Year celebration.
Spend a New Year in China
Visiting China during the Chinese New Year period, you will see the streets filled with lanterns and Spring Festival rhymes and riddles, representing good luck, to show people's happiness. From jungle-covered mountains to modern metropolises to ancient cities, the New Year brings all of China together, seeing it for yourself is an unforgettable experience.